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The written test will consist of Objective type questions from basic Engineering subjects/HR subjects, in the respective disciplines / specialisations and General Aptitude.

#### part-1 Non technical

General aptitude + General english

#### Part-2: Technical

technical section is related to the your discipline applied. A) ELECTRONICS, B) MECHANICAL, C) COMPUTER SCIENCE

**A) Electronics-**

**Networks**: Network graphs:matrices associated with graphs;incidence,fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers, p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-l-n and avalanche photo diode, LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

Analog Circuits: Equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of diodes, BJTs, JFETs, and MOSFETs. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power supplies.

Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, z-transform. Sampling theorems. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; casuality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems. Random signals and noise: probability, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density.

Controls Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-lntegral-Derivative(PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

Communications: Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM); digital modulation schemes-amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwith consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes.

Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Antenna : Dipoleantennas; antenna arrays; radiation pattern; reciprocity theorem, antenna gain.

**B) MECHANICAL**

**Applied Mechanics and Design**

Engineering Mechanics:

Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and

dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and

momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.

Strength of Materials:

Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohr's circle for plane

stress and plane strain, thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams;

bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler's

theory of columns; strain energy methods; thermal stresses.

Theory of Machines:

Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic

analysis of slider-crank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels.

Vibrations:

Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems; effect of damping;

vibration isolation; resonance, critical speeds of shafts.

Design:

Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N

diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and

welded joints, shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and

clutches.

**Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences**

Fluid Mechanics:

Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; control-volume analysis of mass,

momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and

momentum; Bernoulli's equation; viscous flow of incompressible fluids; boundary layer;

elementary turbulent flow; flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.

Heat-Transfer:

Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical

analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced

convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates

and through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer,

black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance,

LMTD and NTU methods.

Thermodynamics:

Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic system and

processes; Carnot cycle. irreversibility and availability; behaviour of ideal and real

gases, properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes;

analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion.

Applications:

Power Engineering: Steam Tables, Rankine, Brayton cycles with regeneration and

reheat. I.C. Engines: air-standard Otto, Diesel cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning:

Vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, Reverse Brayton cycle; moist

air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Peltonwheel,

Francis and Kaplan turbines - impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams.

Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering

Engineering Materials

Structure and properties of engineering materials, heat treatment, stress-strain

diagrams for engineering materials.

Metal Casting:

Design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design,

design considerations.

Forming:

Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes;

load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep

drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy.

Joining:

Physics of welding, brazing and soldering; adhesive bonding; design considerations in

welding.

Machining and Machine Tool Operations:

Mechanics of machining, single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and

materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional

machining processes; principles of work holding, principles of design of jigs and fixtures

Metrology and Inspection:

Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge

design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods;

tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing:

Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools.

Production Planning and Control:

Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement

planning.

Inventory Control:

Deterministic and probabilistic models; safety stock inventory control systems.

Operations Research:

Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation, assignment, network

flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

**C) COMPUTER SCIENCE**

**Computer Science and Information Technology**

Digital Logic:

Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of combinational and sequential

circuits; Number representation and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

Computer Organization and Architecture:

Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and data-path, CPU control design,

Memory interface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Instruction pipelining, Cache

and main memory, Secondary storage.

Programming and Data Structures:

Programming in C; Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, Scope, Binding; Abstract

data types, Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Binary search trees, Binary

heaps.

Algorithms:

Analysis, Asymptotic notation, Notions of space and time complexity, Worst and

average case analysis; Design: Greedy approach, Dynamic programming, Divide-andconquer;

Tree and graph traversals, Connected components, Spanning trees, Shortest

paths; Hashing, Sorting, Searching. Asymptotic analysis (best, worst, average cases) of

time and space, upper and lower bounds, Basic concepts of complexity classes P, NP,

NP-hard, NP-complete.

Theory of Computation:

Regular languages and finite automata, Context free languages and Push-down

automata, Recursively enumerable sets and Turing machines, Undecidability.

Compiler Design:

Lexical analysis, Parsing, Syntax directed translation, Runtime environments,

Intermediate and target code generation, Basics of code optimization.

Operating System:

Processes, Threads, Inter-process communication, Concurrency, Synchronization,

Deadlock, CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems, I/O

systems, Protection and security.

Databases:

ER-model, Relational model (relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database design

(integrity constraints, normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures (sequential

files, indexing, B and B+ trees), Transactions and concurrency control.

Information Systems and Software Engineering:

information gathering, requirement and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process

specifications, input/output design, process life cycle, planning and managing the

project, design, coding, testing, implementation, maintenance.

Computer Networks:

ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error control

techniques, Routing algorithms, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets, IP(v4),

Application layer protocols (icmp, dns, smtp, pop, ftp, http); Basic concepts of hubs,

switches, gateways, and routers. Network security basic concepts of public key and

private key cryptography, digital signature, firewalls.

Web technologies:

HTML, XML, basic concepts of client-server computing.

BEL(PE) PAPER 2012

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